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Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of transposable elements in polychaetous annelids highlight LTR retrotransposon diversity and evolution

Abstract : Abstract Background With the expansion of high throughput sequencing, we now have access to a larger number of genome-wide studies analyzing the Transposable elements (TEs) composition in a wide variety of organisms. However, genomic analyses often remain too limited in number and diversity of species investigated to study in depth the dynamics and evolutionary success of the different types of TEs among metazoans. Therefore, we chose to investigate the use of transcriptomes to describe the diversity of TEs in phylogenetically related species by conducting the first comparative analysis of TEs in two groups of polychaetes and evaluate the diversity of TEs that might impact genomic evolution as a result of their mobility. Results We present a detailed analysis of TEs distribution in transcriptomes extracted from 15 polychaetes depending on the number of reads used during assembly, and also compare these results with additional TE scans on associated low-coverage genomes. We then characterized the clades defined by 1021 LTR-retrotransposon families identified in 26 species. Clade richness was highly dependent on the considered superfamily. Copia elements appear rare and are equally distributed in only three clades, GalEa, Hydra and CoMol. Among the eight BEL/Pao clades identified in annelids, two small clades within the Sailor lineage are new for science. We characterized 17 Gypsy clades of which only 4 are new; the C-clade largely dominates with a quarter of the families. Finally, all species also expressed for the majority two distinct transcripts encoding PIWI proteins, known to be involved in control of TEs mobilities. Conclusions This study shows that the use of transcriptomes assembled from 40 million reads was sufficient to access to the diversity and proportion of the transposable elements compared to those obtained by low coverage sequencing. Among LTR-retrotransposons Gypsy elements were unequivocally dominant but results suggest that the number of Gypsy clades, although high, may be more limited than previously thought in metazoans. For BEL/Pao elements, the organization of clades within the Sailor lineage appears more difficult to establish clearly. The Copia elements remain rare and result from the evolutionary consistent success of the same three clades.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03413201
Contributor : Jonathan Filée Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, November 4, 2021 - 3:13:33 PM
Last modification on : Friday, January 21, 2022 - 3:34:28 AM

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Jonathan Filée, Sarah Farhat, Dominique Higuet, Laure Teysset, Dominique Marie, et al.. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of transposable elements in polychaetous annelids highlight LTR retrotransposon diversity and evolution. Mobile DNA, BioMed Central, 2021, 12 (1), ⟨10.1186/s13100-021-00252-0⟩. ⟨hal-03413201⟩

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