# Refractive effects and difference in absorption between $^{12}$C + $^{16}$O and $^{12}$C + $^{18}$O

Abstract : Hydro-Québec has used a new approach for Reliability Assessment with a prototype called FIORD, a French acronym for a global reliability assessment system. What were the context and the reasons for these new developments? What's new in this approach? How does it work? What did it bring? In the context of recommending a distribution MV grid automation program, Hydro-Québec had to evaluate the benefits of various automation scenarios in order to compare the expected improvements with the present situation. The study had to cover the entire distribution MV grid, using input data representing correctly the present situation and simulation techniques which are sensitive to various scenarios according to the improvements brought by new technologies. In order to fulfill these requirements, a new global approach had to be introduced. The FIORD prototype is based on a new method for the calculation of outage duration for each delivery point: • Detailed simulation of the Outage / Restoration process • System modelling representing: protection, switching, monitoring, communication, remote control, etc. • Analysis and reasoning • Decision making and action In addition, each study covers a set of feeders – possibly a region or the whole distribution MV grid – where various scenarios are compared. In each scenario, automatic modifications of feeders' topology and equipment are brought according to designer's rules. This global approach allowed Hydro-Quebec to quantify the improvement of the reliability of its distribution MV grid due to 9 major scenarios. Such a study would have been impossible with the available reliability assessment tools: • 24300 studies would have been necessary with present software. • Restoration time for a delivery point would not have taken into account the particularities of each scenario. Therefore, the new global approach developed for FIORD is a technical Breakthrough. Upgrading existing tools in order to include FIORD's new approach becomes a necessity. Now, the new methodology developed for this prototype has to be incorporated into a commercial high quality software and benefit of all its valuable features.
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http://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-00006001
Contributor : Yvette Heyd Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Wednesday, September 6, 2000 - 2:17:12 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 23, 2020 - 2:26:14 PM

### Identifiers

• HAL Id : in2p3-00006001, version 1

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### Citation

S. Szilner, M.P. Nicoli, Z. Basrak, R.M. Freeman, F. Haas, et al.. Refractive effects and difference in absorption between $^{12}$C + $^{16}$O and $^{12}$C + $^{18}$O. Cluster'99, World Scientific, pp.180-, 2000. ⟨in2p3-00006001⟩

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