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Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration

K. Adcox S.S. Adler S. Afanasiev C. Aidala N.N. Ajitanand Y. Akiba A. Al-Jamel J. Alexander R. Amirikas K. Aoki Laurent Aphecetche 1 Y. Arai R. Armendariz S.H. Aronson R. Averbeck T.C. Awes R. Azmoun V. Babintsev A. Baldisseri K.N. Barish P.D. Barnes J. Barrette B. Bassalleck S. Bathe S. Batsouli V. Baublis F. Bauer A. Bazilevsky S. Belikov F.G. Bellaiche S.T. Belyaev M.J. Bennett Y. Berdnikov S. Bhagavatula M.T. Bjorndal J.G. Boissevain H. Borel S. Borenstein 2 S. Botelho M.L. Brooks D.S. Brown N. Bruner D. Bucher H. Buesching V. Bumazhnov G. Bunce J.M. Burward-Hoy S. Butsyk X. Camard 1 T.A. Carey J.-S. Chai P. Chand J. Chang W.C. Chang L.L. Chavez S. Chernichenko C.Y. Chi J. Chiba M. Chiu I.J. Choi J. Choi R.K. Choudhury T. Christ T. Chujo M.S. Chung P. Chung V. Cianciolo C.R. Cleven Y. Cobigo B.A. Cole M.P. Comets 3 P. Constantin M. Csanad T. Csorgo Jean-Pierre Cussonneau 1 D. d'Enterria T. Dahms K. Das G. David F. Deak H. Delagrange 1 A. Denisov A. Deshpande E.J. Desmond A. Devismes O. Dietzsch B.V. Dinesh J.L. Drachenberg O. Drapier 2 A. Drees A.K. Dubey R. Du Rietz A. Durum D. Dutta V. Dzhordzhadze K. Ebisu Y.V. Efremenko J. Egdemir K. El Chenawi A. Enokizono H. En'Yo B. Espagnon 3 S. Esumi L. Ewell T. Ferdousi D.E. Fields C. Finck 1 F. Fleuret 2 S.L. Fokin B. Forestier 4 B.D. Fox Z. Fraenkel J.E. Frantz A. Franz A.D. Frawley Y. Fukao S.-Y. Fung S. Gadrat 4 F. Gastineau 1 Marie Germain 1 T.K. Ghosh A. Glenn A.L. Godoi G. Gogiberidze M. Gonin 2 J. Gosset Y. Goto R. Granier de Cassagnac 2 N. Grau S.V. Greene M. Grosse Perdekamp T. Gunji S.K. Gupta W. Guryn H.-A. Gustafsson T. Hachiya A. Hadjhenni 1 J.S. Haggerty M.N. Hagiwara H. Hamagaki A.G. Hansen H. Hara H. Harada E.P. Hartouni K. Haruna M. Harvey E. Haslum K. Hasuko R. Hayano N. Hayashi X. He M. Heffner T.K. Hemmick J.M. Heuser M. Hibino P. Hidas H. Hiejima J.C. Hill D.S. Ho R. Hobbs M. Holmes W. Holzmann K. Homma B. Hong A. Hoover T. Horaguchi H.M. Hur T. Ichihara V.V. Ikonnikov K. Imai M. Inaba M. Inuzuka M.S. Ippolitov D. Isenhower L. Isenhower M. Ishihara T. Isobe M. Issah A. Isupov B.V. Jacak W.Y. Jang Y. Jeong J. Jia J. Jin O. Jinnouchi B.M. Johnson S.C. Johnson K.S. Joo D. Jouan 3 F. Kajihara S. Kametani N. Kamihara M. Kaneta J.H. Kang M. Kann S.S. Kapoor K. Katou T. Kawabata T. Kawagishi A.V. Kazantsev Steven Kelly B. Khachaturov A. Khanzadeev J. Kikuchi D.H. Kim D.J. Kim D.W. Kim E. Kim G.-B. Kim H.J. Kim S.Y. Kim Y.-S. Kim Y.G. Kim E. Kinney W.W. Kinnison A. Kiss E. Kistenev A. Kiyomichi K. Kiyoyama C. Klein-Boesing S. Klinksiek H. Kobayashi L. Kochenda V. Kochetkov D. Koehler T. Kohama R. Kohara B. Komkov M. Konno M. Kopytine D. Kotchetkov A. Kozlov P.J. Kroon C.H. Kuberg G.J. Kunde N. Kurihara K. Kurita Y. Kuroki M.J. Kweon Y. Kwon G.S. Kyle R. Lacey V. Ladygin J.G. Lajoie J. Lauret Y. Le Bornec 3 A. Lebedev S. Leckey D.M. Lee M.K. Lee S. Lee M.J. Leitch M.A.L. Leite X.H. Li Zhenyu Li D.J. Lim H. Lim A. Litvinenko M.X. Liu X. Liu Yehan Liu Z. Liu C.F. Maguire J. Mahon Y.I. Makdisi A. Malakhov M.D. Malik V.I. Manko Y. Mao S.K. Mark S. Markacs Gines Martinez Garcia 1 M.D. Marx A. Masaike H. Masui F. Matathias T. Matsumoto M.C. Mccain P.L. Mcgaughey E. Melnikov M. Merschmeyer F. Messer M. Messer Y. Miake J. Milan T.E. Miller A. Milov S. Mioduszewski R.E. Mischke G.C. Mishra J.T. Mitchell A.K. Mohanty D.P. Morrison J.M. Moss T.V. Moukhanova F. Muhlbacher D. Mukhopadhyay M. Muniruzzaman J. Murata S. Nagamiya Y. Nagasaka Y. Nagata J.L. Nagle M. Naglis Y. Nakada T. Nakamura B.K. Nandi M. Nara J. Newby M. Nguyen L. Nikkinen P. Nilsson S. Nishimura B. Norman A.S. Nyanin J. Nystrand E. O'Brien C.A. Ogilvie H. Ohnishi I.D. Ojha H. Okada K. Okada O.O. Omiwade M. Ono V. Onuchin A. Oskarsson L. Osterman I. Otterlund K. Oyama K. Ozawa D. Pal A.P.T. Palounek V. Pantuev V. Papavassiliou J. Park W.J. Park A. Parmar S.F. Pate H. Pei T. Peitzmann V. Penev J.-C. Peng H. Pereira V. Peresedov D.Yu. Peressounko A.N. Petridis A. Pierson C. Pinkenburg R.P. Pisani P. Pitukhin F. Plasil M. Pollack K. Pope M.L. Purschke A.K. Purwar H. Qu J.M. Qualls J. Rak I. Ravinovich K.F. Read M. Reuter K. Reygers V. Riabov Y. Riabov G. Roche 4 A. Romana 2 M. Rosati A.A. Rose S.S.E. Rosendahl P. Rosnet 4 P. Rukoyatkin V.L. Rykov S.S. Ryu M.E. Sadler B. Sahlmueller N. Saito A. Sakaguchi T. Sakaguchi M. Sakai S. Sakai H. Sako T. Sakuma V. Samsonov L. Sanfratello T.C. Sangster R. Santo H.D. Sato S. Sato S. Sawada B.R. Schlei Y. Schutz 1 V. Semenov R. Seto D. Sharma M.R. Shaw T.K. Shea I. Shein T.-A. Shibata K. Shigaki T. Shiina M. Shimomura Y.H. Shin T. Shohjoh I.G. Sibiriak A. Sickles C.L. Silva D. Silvermyr K.S. Sim J. Simon-Gillo C.P. Singh V. Singh M. Sivertz S. Skutnik W.C. Smith A. Soldatov R.A. Soltz W.E. Sondheim S.P. Sorensen I.V. Sourikova F. Staley P.W. Stankus N. Starinsky P. Steinberg E. Stenlund M. Stepanov A. Ster S.P. Stoll M. Sugioka T. Sugitate C. Suire 3 J.P. Sullivan Y. Sumi Z. Sun M. Suzuki K. Syoji J. Sziklai T. Tabaru S. Takagi E.M. Takagui A. Taketani M. Tamai K.H. Tanaka Y. Tanaka K. Tanida E. Taniguchi M.J. Tannenbaum A. Taranenko P. Tarjan J.D. Tepe J. Thomas J.H. Thomas T.L. Thomas W. Tian M. Togawa J. Tojo H. Torii R.S. Towell V.-N. Tram I. Tserruya Y. Tsuchimoto H. Tsuruoka A.A. Tsvetkov S.K. Tuli H. Tydesjo N. Tyurin T.J. Uam T. Ushiroda H. Valle H.W. van Hecke C. Velissaris J. Velkovska M. Velkovsky R. Vertesi V. Veszpremi L. Villatte A.A. Vinogradov M.A. Volkov A. Vorobyov E. Vznuzdaev M. Wagner H. Wang X.R. Wang Y. Watanabe J. Wessels S.N. White N. Willis 3 D. Winter C. Witzig F.K. Wohn C.L. Woody M. Wysocki W. Xie K. Yagi Y. Yang A. Yanovich S. Yokkaichi G.R. Young I. Younus I.E. Yushmanov W.A. Zajc O. Zaudkte C. Zhang Zhen Zhang S. Zhou S.J. Zhou J. Zimanyi L. Zolin X. Zong
Abstract : Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (p_T), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, non-statistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high p_T. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 11, 2005 - 2:30:39 PM
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K. Adcox, S.S. Adler, S. Afanasiev, C. Aidala, N.N. Ajitanand, et al.. Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration. Nuclear Physics A, Elsevier, 2005, 757, pp.184-283. ⟨10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.086⟩. ⟨in2p3-00023546⟩

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