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Fusion hindrance and synthesis of superheavy elements

Abstract : A mechanism for fusion hindrance is clarified, based on the observation that the sticking configuration of projectile and target is located outside of the conditional saddle point. Accordingly, the fusion process is described by two sequential steps of passing over the Coulomb barrier and shape evolution toward the spherical compound nucleus. The latter one is indispensable in massive systems. With the use of a two-step model, excitation functions of fusion reaction are calculated for various combinations of projectiles and targets which lead to superheavy elements. The hindered fusion excitation measured is reproduced precisely without any adjustable parameter. Combined with survival probabilities calculated by the statistical theory of decay, excitation functions for residues of superheavy elements are calculated to compare with the systematic data measured for the cold fusion path. The peak positions and the widths are correctly reproduced, though it is necessary to reduce the shell correction energies of the compound nuclei predicted by the structure calculations in order to reproduce their absolute values. Predictions are made for a few unknown heavier elements. Furthermore, a preliminary attempt toward the shell closure N = 184 is also presented using a neutron-rich secondary beam.
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Y. Abe, G. I. Kosenko, C. W. Shen, B. Bouriquet, A. Marchix, et al.. Fusion hindrance and synthesis of superheavy elements. Physics of Atomic Nuclei / Yadernaya Fizika, MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica, 2006, 69, pp.1101-1109. ⟨10.1134/S1063778806070027⟩. ⟨in2p3-00087646⟩

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