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The ANTARES Optical Beacon System

M. Ageron 1 J.A. Aguilar A. Albert 2 F. Ameli M. Anghinolfi G. Anton S. Anvar F. Ardellier-Desages E. Aslanides 1 J.-J. Aubert 1 R. Auer E. Barbarito S. Basa 1, 3 M. Battaglieri Y. Becherini J. Beltramelli V. Bertin 1 A. Bigi M. Billault 1 R. Blaes 2 N. de Botton M.C. Bouwhuis S.M. Bradbury R. Bruijn J. Brunner 1 G.F. Burgio J. Busto 1 F. Cafagna L. Caillat 1 A. Calzas 1 A. Capone L. Caponetto E. Carmona J. Carr 1 S.L. Cartwright D. Castel 2 E. Castorina V. Cavasinni S. Cecchini A. Ceres P. Charvis 4 P. Chauchot 5 T. Chiarusi M. Circella C. Colnard C. Compère R. Coniglione N. Cottini P. Coyle 1 S. Cuneo A.-S. Cussatlegras 6 G. Damy 5 R. van Dantzig G. de Bonis C. de Marzo R. de Vita I. Dekeyser 6 E. Delagnes D. Denans Anne Deschamps 4 J.-J. Destelle 1 B. Dinkespieler 1 C. Distefano C. Donzaud J.-F. Drogou 7 F. Druillole D. Durand 8 J.-P. Ernenwein 2 S. Escoffier 1 E. Falchini S. Favard 1 F. Fehr F. Feinstein 1 S. Ferry C. Fiorello V. Flaminio K. Fratini J.-L. Fuda 6 S. Galeotti J.-M. Gallone 9 G. Giacomelli Nicolas Girard 2 C. Gojak 1 Ph. Goret K. Graf G. Hallewell 1 M.N. Harakeh B. Hartmann A. Heijboer E. Heine Y. Hello 4 J.J. Hernandez-Rey J. Hoßl C. Hoffman J. Hogenbirk J.R. Hubbard M. Jaquet 1 M. Jaspers M. de Jong F. Jouvenot N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki A. Kappes T. Karg U. Katz P. Keller 1 E. Kok H. Kok P. Kooijman C. Kopper E.V. Korolkova A. Kouchner 10 W. Kretschmer A. Kruijer S. Kuch V.A. Kudryavstev P. Lagier 1 R. Lahmann G. Lamanna 1 P. Lamare G. Lambard 1 J.-C. Languillat H. Laschinsky J. Lavalle 1 Y. Le Guen 5 H. Le Provost A. Le van Suu 1 Dominique Lefèvre 6 T. Legou 1 G. Lelaizant 1 G. Lim D. Lo Presti H. Loehner S. Loucatos F. Louis F. Lucarelli V. Lyashuk M. Marcelin A. Margiotta R. Masullo F. Mazeas 5 A. Mazure J.E. Mcmillan R. Megna M. Melissas 1 E. Migneco A. Milovanovic M. Mongelli T. Montaruli M. Morganti L. Moscoso 11 M. Musumecis M. Naumann-Godog C. Naumanng V. Niess 1 T. Noble 1 C. Olivetto 9 R. Ostasch N. Palanque-Delabrouille P. Payre 1 H. Peek A. Perez C. Petta P. Piattelli R. Pillet J.-P. Pineau 9 J. Poinsignon V. Popa T. Pradier 9 C. Racca 9 N. Randazzo J. van Randwijk D. Real B. van Rens F. Rethore 3 P. Rewiersma G. Riccobene V. Rigaud 7 M. Ripani V. Roca C. Roda J.F. Rolin 5 H.J. Rose A. Rostovtsev J. Roux 1 M. Ruppi G.V. Russo G. Rusydi F. Salesa K. Salomon P. Sapienza F. Schmitt J.-P. Schuller R. Shanidze I. Sokalski T. Spona M. Spurio G. van der Steenhoven T. Stolarczyk K. Streeb L. Sulak 1 M. Taiuti Christian Tamburini 6 C. Tao 1 G. Terreni L.F. Thompson F. Urbano P. Valdy 7 V. Valente B. Vallage G. Vaudaine G. Venekamp B. Verlaat P. Vernin G. de Vries-Uiterweerd R. van Wijk G. Wijnker P. de Witt Huberts G. Wobbe E. de Wolf A.-F. Yao 6 D. Zaborov H. Zaccone J.D. Zornoza J. Zuniga
Abstract : ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.
Keywords : Astrophysics
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M. Ageron, J.A. Aguilar, A. Albert, F. Ameli, M. Anghinolfi, et al.. The ANTARES Optical Beacon System. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Elsevier, 2007, 578, pp.498-509. ⟨10.1016/j.nima.2007.05.325⟩. ⟨in2p3-00136988⟩

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