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Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission coincident with molecular clouds in the W28 (G6.4-0.1) field

F. Aharonian A.G. Akhperjanian A.R. Bazer-Bachi 1 B. Behera M. Beilicke W. Benbow D. Berge K. Bernlöhr C. Boisson 2 O. Bolz V. Borrel 1 I. Braun E. Brion 3 A.M. Brown R. Bühler T. Bulik I. Büsching T. Boutelier 4 S. Carrigan P.M. Chadwic L.-M. Chounet 5 A.C. Clapson G. Coignet 6 R. Cornils L. Costamante B. Degrange 5 H.J. Dickinson A. Djannati-Ataï 7 W. Domainko L.O'C. Drury G. Dubus 5 J. Dyks K. Egberts D. Emmanoulopoulos P. Espigat 8 C. Farnier 9 F. Feinstein 9 A. Fiasson 9 A. F¨orster G. Fontaine 5 Y. Fukui Seb. Funk S. Funk M. Füßling Y.A. Gallant 9 B. Giebels 5 J.F. Glicenstein 3 B. Glück P. Goret 3 C. Hadjichristidis D. Hauser M. Hauser G. Heinzelmann G. Henri 4 G. Hermann J.A. Hinton A. Hoffmann W. Hofmann M. Holleran S. Hoppe D. Horns A. Jacholkowska 9 O.C. de Jager E. Kendziorra M. Kerschhagg B. Khélifi 5 Nu. Komin 9 K. Kosack G. Lamanna 6 I.J. Latham R. Le Gallou A. Lemière 8 M. Lemoine-Goumard 5 J.-P. Lenain 2 T. Lohse J.M. Martin 2 O. Martineau-Huynh 10 A. Marcowith 9 C. Masterson G. Maurin 8 T.J.L. Mccomb R. Moderski Y. Moriguchi Emmanuel Moulin 9 M. de Naurois 10 D. Nedbal S.J. Nolan J.-P. Olive 1 K.J. Orford J.L. Osborne M. Ostrowski M. Panter G. Pedaletti G. Pelletier 4 P.-O. Petrucci 4 S. Pita 8 G. P¨uhlhofer M. Punch 8 S. Ranchon 6 B.C. Raubenheimer M. Raue S.M. Rayner O. Reimer M. Renaud J. Ripken L. Rob L. Rolland 3 S. Rosier-Lees 6 G. Rowell B. Rudak J. Ruppel V. Sahakian A. Santangelo L. Saugé S. Schlenker R. Schlickeiser R. Schroder U. Schwanke S. Schwarzburg S. Schwemmer A. Shalchi H. Sol 2 D. Spangler Ł. Stawarz R. Steenkamp C. Stegmann G. Superina 5 T. Takeuchi P.H. Tam J.-P. Tavernet 10 R. Terrier 8 C. van Eldik G. Vasileiadis 9 C. Venter J.P. Vialle 6 P. Vincent 10 M. Vivier 3 H.J. Volk F. Volpe 5 S.J. Wagner M. Ward
Abstract : We observed the W28 field (for ~40 h) at Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray energies (E>0.1 TeV) with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes. A reanalysis of EGRET E>100 MeV data was also undertaken. Results from the NANTEN 4m telescope Galactic plane survey and other CO observations have been used to study molecular clouds. We have discovered VHE gamma-ray emission (HESSJ1801-233) coincident with the northeastern boundary of W28, and a complex of sources (HESSJ1800-240A, B and C) ~0.5 deg south of W28, in the Galactic disc. The VHE differential photon spectra are well fit by pure power laws with indices Gamma~2.3 to 2.7. The NANTEN ^{12}CO(J=1-0) data reveal molecular clouds positionally associating with the VHE emission, spanning a ~15 km s^{-1} range in local standard of rest velocity. The VHE/molecular cloud association could indicate a hadronic origin for HESSJ1801-233 and HESSJ1800-240, and several cloud components in projection may contribute to the VHE emission. The clouds have components covering a broad velocity range encompassing the distance estimates for W28 (~2 kpc), and extending up to ~4 kpc. Assuming a hadronic origin, and distances of 2 and 4 kpc for cloud components, the required cosmic ray density enhancement factors (with respect to the solar value) are in the range ~10 to ~30. If situated at 2 kpc distance, such cosmic ray densities may be supplied by a SNR like W28. Additionally and/or alternatively, particle acceleration may come from several catalogued SNRs and SNR candidates, the energetic ultra compact HII region W28A2, and the HII regions M8 and M20 along with their associated open clusters. Further sub-mm observations would be recommended to probe in detail the dynamics of the molecular clouds at velocites >10 km s^{-1}, and their possible connection to W28.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 14, 2008 - 3:34:38 PM
Last modification on : Friday, September 25, 2020 - 11:16:03 AM

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F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, A.R. Bazer-Bachi, B. Behera, M. Beilicke, et al.. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission coincident with molecular clouds in the W28 (G6.4-0.1) field. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2008, 481, pp.401-410. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361:20077765⟩. ⟨in2p3-00221478⟩

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