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A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

J. Abraham P. Abreu M. Aglietta C. Aguirre E.J. Ahn D. Allard 1 I. Allekotte J. Allen J. Alvarez-Muñiz M. Ambrosio L. Anchordoqui S. Andringa A. Anzalone C. Aramo E. Arganda K. Arisaka F. Arqueros T. Asch H. Asorey P. Assis J. Aublin 2 M. Ave G. Avila T. Bäcker D. Badagnani K.B. Barber A.F. Barbosa S.L.C. Barroso B. Baughman P. Bauleo J.J. Beatty T. Beau 3 B.R. Becker K.H. Becker A. Bellétoile 4 J.A. Bellido S. Benzvi C. Berat 4 X. Bertou P.L. Biermann P. Billoir 2 O. Blanch-Bigas 2 F. Blanco C. Bleve H. Blümer M. Bohá?ová D. Boncioli C. Bonifazi 2 R. Bonino N. Borodai J. Brack P. Brogueira W.C. Brown R. Bruijn P. Buchholz A. Bueno R.E. Burton N.G. Busca 3 K.S. Caballero-Mora L. Caramete R. Caruso A. Castellina O. Catalano L. Cazon R. Cester J. Chauvin 4 A. Chiavassa J.A. Chinellato A. Chou J. Chudoba J. Chye R.W. Clay E. Colombo R. Conceição F. Contreras H. Cook J. Coppens A. Cordier 5 U. Cotti S. Coutu C.E. Covault A. Creusot A. Criss J. Cronin A. Curutiu S. Dagoret-Campagne 5 Richard Dallier 6 K. Daumiller B.R. Dawson R.M. de Almeida M. de Domenico C. de Donato S.J. de Jong G. de la Vega W.J.M. de Mello Junior J.R.T. de Mello Neto I. de Mitri V. de Souza K.D. de Vries G. Decerprit 3 L. del Peral O. Deligny 7 A. Della Selva C. Delle Fratte H. Dembinski C. Di Giulio J.C. Diaz P.N. Diep C. Dobrigkeit J.C. D&rsquoolivo P.N. Dong A. Dorofeev J.C. dos Anjos M.T. Dova D. D&rsquourso I. Dutan M.A. Duvernois J. Ebr R. Engel M. Erdmann C.O. Escobar A. Etchegoyen P. Facal San Luis H. Falcke G. Farrar A.C. Fauth N. Fazzini F. Ferrer A. Ferrero B. Fick A. Filevich A. Filip?i? I. Fleck S. Fliescher C.E. Fracchiolla E.D. Fraenkel W. Fulgione R.F. Gamarra S. Gambetta B. García D. García Gámez D. Garcia-Pinto X. Garrido 5 G. Gelmini H. Gemmeke P.L. Ghia U. Giaccari M. Giller H. Glass L.M. Goggin M.S. Gold G. Golup F. Gomez Albarracin M. Gómez Berisso Paulo Gonçalves D. Gonzalez J.G. Gonzalez D. Góra A. Gorgi P. Gouffon S.R. Gozzini E. Grashorn S. Grebe M. Grigat A.F. Grillo Y. Guardincerri F. Guarino G.P. Guedes J. Gutiérrez J.D. Hague V. Halenka P. Hansen D. Harari S. Harmsma J.L. Harton A. Haungs M.D. Healy T. Hebbeker G. Hebrero D. Heck C. Hojvat V.C. Holmes P. Homola J.R. Hörandel A. Horneffer M. Hrabovsk? T. Huege M. Hussain M. Iarlori A. Insolia F. Ionita A. Italiano S. Jiraskova M. Kaducak K.H. Kampert T. Karova P. Kasper Balázs Kégl 5 B. Keilhauer J. Kelley E. Kemp R.M. Kieckhafer H.O. Klages M. Kleifges J. Kleinfeller R. Knapik J. Knapp D.H. Koang 4 A. Krieger O. Krömer D. Kruppke-Hansen F. Kuehn D. Kuempel K. Kulbartz N. Kunka A. Kusenko G. La Rosa C. Lachaud 3 B.L. Lago Pascal Lautridou 6 M.S.A.B. Leão D. Lebrun 4 P. Lebrun J. Lee M.A. Leigui de Oliveira A. Lemiere 7 A. Letessier-Selvon 2 I. Lhenry-Yvon R. López A. Lopez Agüera K. Louedec 5 J. Lozano Bahilo A. Lucero M. Ludwig H. Lyberis M.C. Maccarone C. Macolino S. Maldera D. Mandat P. Mantsch A.G. Mariazzi I.C. Maris H.R. Marquez Falcon G. Marsella D. Martello O. Martínez Bravo H.J. Mathes J. Matthews J.A.J. Matthews G. Matthiae D. Maurizio P.O. Mazur M. Mcewen R.R. Mcneil G. Medina-Tanco M. Melissas D. Melo E. Menichetti A. Menshikov C. Meurer M.I. Micheletti W. Miller L. Miramonti S. Mollerach M. Monasor D. Monnier Ragaigne 5 F. Montanet 4 B. Morales C. Morello J.C. Moreno C. Morris M. Mostafá C.A. Moura S. Mueller M.A. Muller R. Mussa G. Navarra J.L. Navarro S. Navas P. Necesal L. Nellen C. Newman-Holmes P.T. Nhung N. Nierstenhoefer D. Nitz D. Nosek L. No?ka M. Nyklicek J. Oehlschläger A. Olinto P. Oliva V.M. Olmos-Gilbaja M. Ortiz N. Pacheco D. Pakk Selmi-Dei M. Palatka J. Pallotta N. Palmieri G. Parente E. Parizot 3 S. Parlati R.D. Parsons S. Pastor T. Paul V. Pavlidou K. Payet 4 M. Pech J. Pe¸kala I.M. Pepe L. Perrone R. Pesce E. Petermann S. Petrera P. Petrinca A. Petrolini Y. Petrov J. Petrovic C. Pfendner R. Piegaia T. Pierog M. Pimenta V. Pirronello M. Platino V.H. Ponce M. Pontz P. Privitera M. Prouza E.J. Quel J. Rautenberg O. Ravel 6 D. Ravignani A. Redondo Benoît Revenu 6 F.A.S. Rezende J. Ridky S. Riggi M. Risse C. Rivière 4 V. Rizi C. Robledo G. Rodriguez J. Rodriguez Martino J. Rodriguez Rojo I. Rodriguez-Cabo M.D. Rodríguez-Frías G. Ros J. Rosado T. Rossler M. Roth B. Rouillé-d'Orfeuil 3 E. Roulet A.C. Rovero F. Salamida H. Salazar G. Salina F. Sánchez M. Santander C.E. Santo E. Santos E.M. Santos F. Sarazin S. Sarkar R. Sato N. Scharf V. Scherini H. Schieler P. Schiffer A. Schmidt F. Schmidt T. Schmidt O. Scholten H. Schoorlemmer J. Schovancova P. Schovánek F. Schroeder S. Schulte F. Schüssler D. Schuster S.J. Sciutto M. Scuderi A. Segreto D.V. Semikoz 8 M. Settimo R.C. Shellard I. Sidelnik B.B. Siffert G. Sigl A. ?mialkowski R. ?mída G.R. Snow P. Sommers J. Sorokin H. Spinka R. Squartini E. Strazzeri A. Stutz 4 F. Suarez T. Suomijärvi 7 A.D. Supanitsky M.S. Sutherland J. Swain Z. Szadkowski A. Tamashiro A. Tamburro T. Tarutina O. Ta?c?u R. Tcaciuc D. Tcherniakhovski D. Tegolo N.T. Thao D. Thomas R. Ticona J. Tiffenberg C. Timmermans W. Tkaczyk C.J. Todero Peixoto B. Tomé A. Tonachini I. Torres P. Travnicek D.B. Tridapalli G. Tristram E. Trovato M. Tueros R. Ulrich M. Unger Martin Urban J.F. Valdés Galicia I. Valiño L. Valore A.M. van den Berg J.R. Vázquez R.A. Vázquez D. Veberi? A. Velarde T. Venters V. Verzi M. Videla L. Villaseñor S. Vorobiov L. Voyvodic H. Wahlberg P. Wahrlich O. Wainberg D. Warner A.A. Watson S. Westerhoff B.J. Whelan G. Wieczorek L. Wiencke B. Wilczy?ska H. Wilczy?ski T. Winchen M.G. Winnick H. Wu B. Wundheiler T. Yamamoto P. Younk G. Yuan A. Yushkov E. Zas D. Zavrtanik M. Zavrtanik I. Zaw A. Zepeda M. Ziolkowski
Abstract : The air fluorescence detector of the PierreAugerObservatory is designed to perform calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers created by cosmic rays of above 10^18 eV. To correct these measurements for the effects introduced by atmospheric fluctuations, the Observatory contains a group of monitoring instruments to record atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 km2. The atmospheric data are used extensively in the reconstruction of air showers, and are particularly important for the correct determination of shower energies and the depths of shower maxima. This paper contains a summary of the molecular and aerosol conditions measured at the PierreAugerObservatory since the start of regular operations in 2004, and includes a discussion of the impact of these measurements on air shower reconstructions. Between 10^18 and 10^20 eV, the systematic uncertainties due to all atmospheric effects increase from 4% to 8% in measurements of shower energy, and 4 g cm^-2 to 8 g cm^-2 in measurements of the shower maximum.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 3, 2010 - 9:03:26 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 25, 2020 - 6:42:08 PM

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J. Abraham, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, C. Aguirre, E.J. Ahn, et al.. A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Astroparticle Physics, Elsevier, 2010, 33, pp.108-129. ⟨10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.12.005⟩. ⟨in2p3-00447759⟩

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