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Fermi observations of Cassiopeia and Cepheus: diffuse gamma-ray emission in the outer Galaxy

A. A. Abdo Markus Ackermann Marco Ajello Luca Baldini Jean Ballet 1 Guido Barbiellini D. Bastieri B. M. Baughman K. Bechtol R. Bellazzini B. Berenji E. D. Bloom E. Bonamente A. W. Borgland J. Bregeon A. Brez M. Brigida Pascal Bruel 2 T. H. Burnett S. Buson G. A. Caliandro R. A. Cameron P. A. Caraveo J. M. Casandjian 1 C. Cecchi Ö. Çelik A. Chekhtman C. C. Cheung J. Chiang S. Ciprini R. Claus J. Cohen-Tanugi 3 L. R. Cominsky J. Conrad C. D. Dermer F. de Palma S. W. Digel E. Do Couto E Silva P. S. Drell R. Dubois D. Dumora 4 C. Farnier 3 C. Favuzzi S. J. Fegan 2 W. B. Focke P. Fortin 2 M. Frailis Y. Fukazawa S. Funk P. Fusco F. Gargano N. Gehrels S. Germani G. Giavitto B. Giebels 2 N. Giglietto F. Giordano T. Glanzman G. Godfrey I. A. Grenier 1 M.-H. Grondin 4 J. E. Grove L. Guillemot 4 S. Guiriec A. K. Harding M. Hayashida D. Horan 2 R. E. Hughes M. S. Jackson G. Jóhannesson A. S. Johnson W. N. Johnson T. Kamae H. Katagiri J. Kataoka N. Kawai M. Kerr J. Knödlseder 5 M. Kuss J. Lande L. Latronico M. Lemoine-Goumard 4 F. Longo F. Loparco B. Lott 4 M. N. Lovellette P. Lubrano A. Makeev M. N. Mazziotta J. E. Mcenery C. Meurer P. F. Michelson W. Mitthumsiri T. Mizuno C. Monte M. E. Monzani A. Morselli I. V. Moskalenko S. Murgia P. L. Nolan J. P. Norris E. Nuss 3 T. Ohsugi A. Okumura N. Omodei E. Orlando J. F. Ormes D. Paneque V. Pelassa 3 M. Pepe M. Pesce-Rollins F. Piron 3 T.A. Porter S. Rainò R. Rando M. Razzano A. Reimer O. Reimer T. Reposeur 4 A. Y. Rodriguez F. Ryde H. F.-W. Sadrozinski D. Sanchez 2 A. Sander P. M. Saz Parkinson C. Sgrò E. J. Siskind P. D. Smith G. Spandre P. Spinelli Jean-Luc Starck 1 M. S. Strickman A. W. Strong D. J. Suson H. Takahashi T. Tanaka J. B. Thayer J. G. Thayer D. J. Thompson L. Tibaldo 1 D. F. Torres G. Tosti A. Tramacere Y. Uchiyama T. L. Usher V. Vasileiou N. Vilchez 5 V. Vitale A. P. Waite P. Wang B. L. Winer K. S. Wood T. Ylinen M. Ziegler
Abstract : We present the analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope toward a region in the second Galactic quadrant at 100 deg < l < 145 deg and -15 deg < b < +30 deg. This region encompasses the prominent Gould-Belt clouds of Cassiopeia, Cepheus and the Polaris flare, as well as atomic and molecular complexes at larger distances, like that associated with NGC 7538 in the Perseus arm. The good kinematic separation in velocity between the local, Perseus, and outer arms, and the presence of massive complexes in each of them make this region well suited to probe cosmic rays and the interstellar medium beyond the solar circle. The gamma-ray emissivity spectrum of the gas in the Gould Belt is consistent with expectations based on the locally measured cosmic-ray spectra. The gamma-ray emissivity decreases from the Gould Belt to the Perseus arm, but the measured gradient is flatter than expectations for cosmic-ray sources peaking in the inner Galaxy as suggested by pulsars. The Xco=N(H2)/W(CO) conversion factor is found to increase from (0.87 +- 0.05) 10^20 cm^-2 (K km s^-1)^-1 in the Gould Belt to (1.9 +- 0.2) 10^20 cm^-2 (K km s^-1)^-1 in the Perseus arm. We derive masses for the molecular clouds under study. Dark gas, not properly traced by radio and microwave surveys, is detected in the Gould Belt through a correlated excess of dust and gamma-ray emission: its mass amounts to ~50% of the CO-traced mass.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 2, 2010 - 10:52:14 AM
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A. A. Abdo, Markus Ackermann, Marco Ajello, Luca Baldini, Jean Ballet, et al.. Fermi observations of Cassiopeia and Cepheus: diffuse gamma-ray emission in the outer Galaxy. The Astrophysical Journal, American Astronomical Society, 2010, 710, pp.133-149. ⟨10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/133⟩. ⟨in2p3-00460710⟩

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