Abstract : The hadrontherapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and 12C ions)
to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy
deposition at the end of the path (ie Bragg peak). A large dose can be delivered inside
a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. Concerning the 12C
beams, an enhanced biological efficiency has been measured. Therefore there is an obvious
advantage in using these beams. The nuclear fragmentation process of 12C projectiles leads
to deposit some dose beyond the Bragg peak and to spread the dose deposition around the
beam direction. The basic knowledge of this process is of crucial importance to compute
the dose deposition with an accuracy better than 3%. Additionally the fragments produced
by this fragmentation process can be used for a real-time monitoring of the dose deposition
in the patient.
In this lecture, we will define the quantities and the physical processes relevant for the
hadrontherapy. The importance of the knowledge of the fragmentation process and its
influence on the dose map will be presented and discussed. In the last part of this lecture,
an overview of different instrumental developments (imaging, beam and dose monitoring)
and different experimental measurements will be done.