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Discovery of a Superluminal Fe K Echo at the Galactic Center: The Glorious Past of Sgr A* Preserved by Molecular Clouds

Abstract : We present the result of a study of the X-ray emission from the galactic center (GC) molecular clouds (MCs) within 15 arcmin from Sgr A*. We use XMM-Newton data (about 1.2 Ms of observation time) spanning about eight years. The MC spectra show all the features characteristic of reflection: (1) intense Fe Kα, with equivalent width of about 0.7-1 keV, and the associated Kβ line; (2) flat power-law continuum, and (3) a significant Fe K edge (τ ~ 0.1-0.3). The diffuse low ionization Fe K emission follows the MC distribution, nevertheless not all MC are Fe K emitters. The long baseline monitoring allows the characterization of the temporal evolution of the MC emission. A complex pattern of variations is shown by the different MCs, with some having constant Fe K emission, some increasing, and some decreasing. In particular, we observe an apparent superluminal motion of a light front illuminating a molecular nebula. This might be due to a source outside the MC (such as Sgr A* or a bright and long outburst of a X-ray binary), though it cannot be due to low energy cosmic rays or a source located inside the cloud. We also observe a decrease of the X-ray emission from G0.11-0.11, behavior similar to that of Sgr B2. The line intensities, clouds dimensions, columns densities, and positions with respect to Sgr A* are consistent with being produced by the same Sgr A* flare. The required high luminosity (about 1.5 × 1039 erg s-1) can hardly be produced by a binary system, while it is in agreement with a flare of Sgr A* fading about 100 years ago. The low intensity of the Fe K emission coming from the 50 and the 20 km s-1 MC places an upper limit of 1036 erg s-1 to the mean luminosity of Sgr A* in the last 60-90 years. The Fe K emission and variations from these MC might have been produced by a single flare of Sgr A*.
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Contributor : Régis Terrier Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Tuesday, February 14, 2012 - 6:05:43 PM
Last modification on : Monday, December 13, 2021 - 9:15:23 AM

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G. Ponti, R. Terrier, A. Goldwurm, G. Belanger, G. Trap. Discovery of a Superluminal Fe K Echo at the Galactic Center: The Glorious Past of Sgr A* Preserved by Molecular Clouds. The Astrophysical Journal, American Astronomical Society, 2010, 714, pp.732-747. ⟨10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/732⟩. ⟨in2p3-00670182⟩



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