Abstract : Results are reported from a search for the anomalous production of highly boosted Z bosons with large transverse momentum and decaying to the dimuon final state. Such Z bosons may be produced in the decays of new heavy particles. The search uses pp collision data at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector. The shape of the observed transverse-momentum distribution of Z bosons is consistent with standard-model expectations. Constraints are obtained on models predicting the production of excited quarks decaying via electroweak processes. For excited-quark decays involving only standard-model gauge bosons and coupling strengths, masses of excited quarks below 1.94 TeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level, assuming a compositeness scale equal to the excited-quark mass. For excited-quark production via novel contact interactions, masses below 2.22 TeV are excluded, even if the excited quarks do not couple to gluons.