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First observation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with Kinetic Inductance Detectors

Abstract : Clusters of galaxies provide precious informations on the evolution of the Universe and large scale structures. Recent cluster observations via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect have proven to be a powerful tool to detect and study them. In this context, high resolution tSZ observations (about tens of arcsec) are of particular interest to probe intermediate and high redshift clusters. Such observations will be carried out with the millimeter dual-band $NIKA2$ camera, based on Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and to be installed at the IRAM 30-meter telescope in 2015. To demonstrate the potential of such an instrument, we present tSZ observations with the $NIKA$ camera prototype, consisting of two arrays of 132 and 224 detectors observing at 140 and 240 GHz with a 18.5 and 12.5 arcsec angular resolution, respectively. The cluster RX J1347.5-1145 was observed simultaneously at 140 and 240 GHz. We used a spectral decorrelation technique to remove the atmospheric noise and obtain a map of the cluster at 140 GHz. The efficiency of this procedure has been characterized through realistic simulations of the observations. The obtained 140 GHz map presents a decrement at the cluster position consistent with the tSZ nature of the signal. We used this map to study the pressure distribution of the cluster by fitting a gNFW model to the data. Subtracting this model from the map, we confirm that RX J1347.5-1145 is an ongoing merger, in agreement with and complementary to previous tSZ and X-ray observations. For the first time, we demonstrate the tSZ capability of KIDs based instruments. The $NIKA2$ camera, with about 5000 detectors and a 6.5 arcmin field of view, will be a well-suited instrument for in-depth studies of the Intra Cluster Medium from intermediate to distant clusters and so for the follow-up of recently detected clusters by the $Planck$ satellite.
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R. Adam, B. Comis, J.F. Macías-Pérez, A. Adane, P. Ade, et al.. First observation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with Kinetic Inductance Detectors. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2014, 569, pp.A66. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201322902⟩. ⟨in2p3-00880885⟩

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