Study of the high-energy transient objects in the Universe in the era of the multimessenger observations

Abstract : The Universe is continuously the scene of explosive events capable of releasing a tremendous amount of energy in short time scales. These transients like Gamma-Ray Bursts, Supernovae or Active Galactic Nuclei are often associated with extreme objects such as neutron stars or black holes. Generally, these sources emit light in a large spectral energy range and sometimes in the whole electromagnetic spectrum for the most extreme cases. Thus, a multi-wavelength analysis is crucial to study and understand the complex physical processes at work. Furthermore, in the vicinity of these sources, particles (cosmic-rays, CRs) could be efficiently accelerated up to very high energies by violent shock mecanisms. The interaction of these CRs with the surrounding environment may lead to a substantial production of high-energy neutrinos. Therefore, the study of the high-energy transient objects through neutrino astronomy offer the possibility to finally identify the nature of the powerful cosmic accelerators a hundred year after the discovery of the cosmic-rays. This thesis is dedicated to the study of two transient sources among the most extreme ones observed in the Universe: the Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected ~ 50 years ago and the Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) newly discovered ~ 15 years ago. These sources are characterised by the "prompt" emission of a gamma-ray flash (keV-MeV) lasting few ms up to few seconds for GRBs and an intense pulse of radio light (GHz) lasting few ms for FRBs. In the case of GRBs a late broadband afterglow emission is observed in X-rays/optical/radio domain while up to now no other electromagnetic counterpart has ever been detected in coincidence with any FRBs. These last years, many models predicting a multi-wavelength and a multi-messenger emission from these two phenomena have been developped. The main goal of this thesis work is to test these models in order to constrain the physics and the nature of the GRBs/FRBs. To do so, a detailed analysis on the physical properties of the GRB afterglow emission was made thanks to a large set of data collected these last 20 years by various facilities. The study reveals the major problems but also the successes encountered with the so-called "standard" GRB model. Subtle connections between the prompt and the afterglow emission are also discussed. In addition, a search for a neutrino signal from GRBs/FRBs was realised with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The results are described in this thesis as well as the constraints on the particle acceleration mecanisms occuring during these transient phenomena. At last, this manuscript presents the different innovative observational programs realised in the optical domain with the TAROT and Zadko telescopes and in the astroparticle side with the ANTARES neutrino telescope in order to probe the nature of the GRBs/FRBs progenitors.
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Damien Turpin. Study of the high-energy transient objects in the Universe in the era of the multimessenger observations. Astrophysics [astro-ph]. Universite Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier (UT3 Paul Sabatier), 2016. English. ⟨tel-01560820⟩

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