.. .. Testbeam, 1.2 Super Proton Synchrotron (SpS), p.142

T. .. Setup, 143 7.2.1 The EUDET telescopes for particle tracking

C. .. , 1.2 Super Proton Synchrotron (SpS), p.142

T. .. Setup, 143 7.2.1 The EUDET telescopes for particle tracking

, 190 10.2 Data and simulated event samples

. .. Object, 3.4 Additional selections for dijet-mass analysis

. .. Results, 218 10.6.1 Results of the Multivariate analysis

. .. Results-of-combinations, 225 10.7.2 Observation of H? bb decays: combination of all production modes

, Most probable energy loss in silicon ?p per unit thickness (x) , scaled to the mean loss of a minimum ionizing particle

, Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of a PKA with an initial energy of 50 keV in silicon. The PKA initially travels in the vertical direction upwards, starting from the origin

, Schematic representation of some point defects in a square lattice, p.68

, The calculated damage functions for protons, neutrons, pions, and electrons over a wide range of energies. The normalization of the ordinate to 95 MeV mb represents the damage equivalent to 1 MeV neutrons [67]

, N ef f , (right) as a function of the uence for a 300 µm silicon detector [68], Relationship between the depletion voltage, U dep , (left) and eective doping

, Measured change of the eective doping concentration as a function of the time during controlled annealing at 60°C with tted contributions of short term benecial annealing, long term reverse annealing, and stable damage [65]

, This detector is composed of a sensor and a readout chip interconnected via a bump ball in between the under bump metallizations on chip and sensor side

, The guard rings are located on the backside. (b) n + -in-p sensor design with a p-type bulk and n + implants, (a) n + -in-n sensor design with an n-type bulk and n + implants, vol.73

, From left to right: no Guard Ring -no Bias Rail design, no Bias Rail -one Guard Ring design, no Guard Ring -one Bias Rail design and one Guard Ring -one Bias Rail design

, 94 5.16 Probe station at LAL-clean-room used for the IV-and CV-measurements. The probe is attached to an optical microscope and a conductive copper chuck. The needle probe and high precision mechanical base is also visible at the left side of the picture, p.94

, Semilogarithmic scale is used, IV-measurement for dierent design variations for all the structures with 50 µm thickness and NiAu UBM (a), Pt UBM (b)

, IV-measurement for the two UBM variations for all the structures with 50 µm thickness and NoGR-NoBR design. Semi-logarithmic scale is used

, Semi-logarithmic scale is used, IV-measurement for dierent design variations for all structures with 100 µm thickness and NiAu UBM (a)

, Semi-logarithmic scale is used, IV-measurement for dierent design variations for all structures with 150 µm thickness and NiAu UBM (a)

, Semilogarithmic scale is used, IV-measurement for dierent thickness variations for all structures with NoGR-NoBR design and NiAu UBM

, Average breakdown voltage for dierent wafer thickness, comparing NiAu UBM and

U. .. Pt, Average breakdown voltage for dierent design

, Average depletion voltage for dierent wafer thickness, comparing NiAu UBM and

, Abrupt changes are observed in layer interface regions which are marked with dierent shading colors. Oxygen and silicon curves are scaled to a factor of 10 ?2 and 10 ?5 respectively for representation purposes

, Schematic of the SIMS sputter-then-image method to create separate two-dimensional images. A series of these 2D images can be reconstructed to create a 3D representation of the sample, p.110

. .. , Meshing of a disc surface using triangular sub-elements, vol.114

, The CAMECA IMF 7F System where SIMS measurements were performed at GEMAC laboratory at the university Saint-Quentin-enYvelines at Versailles [102]

, Doping prole map (left) and comparison of 1D doping prole from simulation (blue curve) and SIMS measurement (red curve) for Phosphorus implant in the pixel region (right)

, Doping prole map (left) and comparison of 1D doping prole from simulation (blue curve) and SIMS measurement (red curve) for Phosphorus implant in the Edge region (right)

, Doping prole map (left) and comparison of 1D doping prole from simulation (blue curve) and SIMS measurement (red curve) for Boron implant for p-spray (right)

, Doping prole map (left) and comparison of 1D doping prole from simulation (blue curve) and SIMS measurement (red curve) for Boron implant in active edge region (right)

. .. , 119 LIST OF FIGURES 6.11 Simulated Leakage current as a function of Bias Voltage for dierent doses. As the irradiation dose increases the breakdown voltage increases up to 225 V for 2x10 16 n eq /cm 2, Overall view of the simulated n + -in-p active edge pixel structure showing dopant concentration prole

, Leakage current as a function of Bias Voltage, with a comparison of simulation to data, after irradiation. The sensor is 150 µm thick and has a GR and BR at the edge. The breakdown of irradiated sensor increases up to 225 V for a uence of 2x10 16 n eq /cm 2, p.121

, Leakage current as a function of Bias Voltage, with a comparison of simulation to data, before irradiation. The sensor is 150 µm thick and has a GR and BR at the edge. The breakdown of non-irradiated sensor is about 150 V

, The majority charge carriers contribute to the electric current in ntype and p-type semiconductor

, A transmission line method (TLM) test structure. The Blue regions is the doped silicon region. Dark gray region is the array of aluminium contacts which formed with various spacings over the doped region, p.125

, Top view of a two-terminal contact semiconductor structure, p.125

, Mask used in the mask-based lithography with direct laser writing used produce the TLM test structure used in this study, p.127

, An example of the layout design of one of the contact series in the TLM test structure used in this study, taken from the GDS design le, p.128

, 19 A brief process ow to fabricate the TLM test structure, p.129

, Schematic cross section of TLM sample illustrating the etching process for n-times of doped layers (blue region) until reaching the silicon substrate (beige region)

, 130 6.22 Resistance versus contact separation obtained from TLM measurement. Both the sheet resistance as well as the contact resistance can be determined using this technique, The TLM measurement allows assessing the magnitude of the resistance by applying a voltage across the contacts and measuring the resulting current

, Repetitively, a small layer of implant is etched, using Reactive Ion Etching (RIE), and the resistance at dierent depths is measured until reaching the substrate, depth measurement used in this study

, 24 (a) The two-point probe station used to measure the resistance using the TLM method. (b) Microscope view of needles placed on two adjacent contacts to perform the IV measurement, vol.6, p.133

, Advanced Vacuum-Vision 320" RIE machine used in this study to etch the TLM samples

, Cross section of the RIE chamber where the TLM samples were etched

, Three consecutive prolometer measurement of an irradiated sample obtained after the rst, second and third etching was performed. A layer of thickness 200 nm is etched in each step, p.135

, Measured Current as function of bias Voltage of a non irradiated Boron doped sample at dierent spacing between contacts, p.135

, Measured resistance as a function of contact spacing distance for non irradiated sample (a) as well as irradiated sample (b) at four dierent etching steps. The semi-logarithmic scale is used here, p.136

, 137 6.31 TLM measurement (green curve) compared to SIMS measurement (red curve) of the active carrier concentration as a function of depth for non irradiated sample, TLM measurement of the active carrier concentration as a function of depth for non irradiated sample

, TLM measurement (green curve) of the active carrier concentration as a function of depth for non irradiated sample compared to simulated doping prole corresponding to three implantation energies: 240 keV, 130 keV and 60 keV. The sample provided by the manufacturer was implanted with a 60 keV

, Photograph of the DESY beam hall. The beam direction is from right to left, A diagram illustrating the process of producing an electron or positron beam for tests at DESY [115]

]. .. , 144 7.4 The cooling box, manufactured by MPP (a) which is situated at CERN, while the Dortmund cooling box (b) is used at CERN and DESY [122]

. .. The, 147 7.6 Example of EUDET Online Monitoring plots for a non-irradiated Active edge pixel detector. The colorbar in this plot indicate number of hits. As seen here

. Example and . Online, This indicates a negative correlation between the two modules. Hence, the fact that the two DUTs are not aligned. This is explained by the fact the two DUTs where mounted back-to-back

, An example of the output from the clusters vs run analysis class written for TBMon, showing the total matched cluster size for a sensor as a function of time (per run). (a) is an example of a good set of runs while (b) is an example of a set of runs with lower statistics and poorer alignment

, the slim edge design with d e = 100 µm, one grounded BR and the common p-t structure (top right), the slim edge design with one BR and GR and the single p-t design (bottom left) and the slim edge design with only one BR and the single p-t structure (bottom right), Four dierent sensor types of the Advacam SOI production: the active edge design with d e = 50 µm, one GR and no p-t structure (top left)

, Active edge design of 150 µm thickness with GR edge structure. (b) Slim Edge design of 100 µm thickness with BR and punch-through edge design

, Beam and machine parameters for collisions in 2012, 2016.

, Parameters for the multiplication rate, high electric elds as listed in [56]

, 2 Parameters for the drift velocity relation in silicon, p.59

, Denition and units/values of the variables used in Bethe-Bloch formula

, **) Note that for the RD53A chip, the chip grid is 50×50 µm 2 but the compatible sensors are either 25×100 µm 2 or 50 × 50 µm 2, RD53A chip specication, that will be used in Phase-II upgrade for the ITk, in comparison with the previous readout: the FE-I3 and the FE-I4, vol.86

, 2 Summary of the geometrical characteristics of the four active edge sensor designs

, Average breakdown voltage for dierent design and thickness variations for all structures with Pt UBM

, Average breakdown voltage for dierent designs and thickness variations for all structures with NiAu UBM

, Typical RSF values calculated in silicon sensors measurements, p.106

, 2 The radiation damage model for P-type (up to 7 × 10 15 n eq /cm 2 ), p.120

, The radiation damage model for P-type (in the range 7×10 15 n/cm 2 ? 2.2 × 10 16 n eq /cm 2 )

, Main characterization of the dierent wafers fabricated for this study, vol.128

, Summary of the single chip modules from Advacam productions relevant for this thesis

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