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Etudes expérimentales et numériques de l'interaction d'un faisceau d'électrons avec une cible aluminium

Abstract : One of the applications of relativistic intense electron beams is the characterization of materials subjected to their irradiation. The study of the resulting shocks makes it possible to develop and validate the equations of state of these materials. At CEA /CESTA we have two generators which will be described and used in this thesis. CESAR is a generator producing an electron beam of 800 keV, 300 kA, over a duration of 60 ns. Due to the strong current, the beam is transported in 1 mbar of air and then it is focused thanks to an external magnetic field. The operating time of CESAR is divided into two parts : the characterization of the emitted beam and the study of materials subjected to shocks produced by the energy deposition of electrons. To simulate the behavior of the target material during the experiment, we use two simulation codes. The first, Diane, calculates the energy deposition of electrons in the target. The second, Hésione, uses Diane’s results to simulate the hydrodynamics of the target which is associated with energy deposition. To initialize the calculations, we use the results of the beam characterization experiments (kinetic energy of the electrons, current and homogeneity of the beam). In the case of CESAR at high fluence (700 cal/cm2), we will demonstrate that the kinetic energy of the electrons must decrease during their transport in the gas in order to correctly restore the experiments by the simulations. In parallel, we use the RKA generator to study the physics of the nteraction of an electron beam (500 keV, from 3 to 30 kA, 100 ns) at low fluence (a few cal/cm2) with a gas, this work is performed in collaboration with the American laboratory "Sandia National Laboratories ". The highly reproducible electron beam is transported in argon at a variable pressure and has been studied in this thesis’ work. The results of the experiments will be compared to the predictions of the CALDER (CEA-DAM) and EMPIRE (SNL) calculation codes in order to validate the latter.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 26, 2020 - 9:56:07 AM
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Nicolas Szalek. Etudes expérimentales et numériques de l'interaction d'un faisceau d'électrons avec une cible aluminium. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Bordeaux, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020BORD0080⟩. ⟨tel-02977823⟩

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