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Astronomy & Astrophysics 537 (2012) 17
In-orbit performance of Herschel-HIFI
P. R. Roelfsema, F. P. Helmich, D. Teyssier, V. Ossenkopf1, 2, P. Morris3, M. Olberg4, R. Shipman5, C. Risacher6, M. Akyilmaz, R. Assendorp, I. M. Avruch, D. Beintema, N. Biver7, A. Boogert8, C. Borys8, J. Braine9, 10, 11, 12, M. Caris, E. Caux13, 14, J. Cernicharo15, O. Coeur-Joly16, C. Comito17, G. De Lange8, B. Delforge, P. Dieleman18, L. Dubbeldam, Th. de Graauw5, K. Edwards, M. Fich5, F. Flederus, C. Gal, A. Di Giorgio, Fabrice Herpin9, 10, 11, 12, D. R. Higgins, A. Hoac, R. Huisman, C. Jarchow, W. Jellema, A. De Jonge, D. Kester, T. Klein19, J. Kooi, C. Kramer20, W. Laauwen, B. Larsson8, C. Leinz, S. Lord8, A. Lorenzani21, W. Luinge, A. Marston, J. Martín-Pintado8, C. McCoey5, M. Melchior, M. Michalska, R. Moreno7, H. Müller, W. Nowosielski, Y. Okada, P. Orleański, T. G. Phillips22, J. Pearson8, D. Rabois, L. Ravera16, J. Rector, M. Rengel23, H. Sagawa, W. Salomons, E. Sánchez-Suárez, R. Schieder, F. Schlöder, F. Schmülling, M. Soldati, J. Stutzki24, B. Thomas25, A. G. G. M. Tielens18, C. Vastel13, 14, K. Wildeman, Q. Xie, M. Xilouris, C. Wafelbakker, N. Whyborn, P. Zaal, T. Bell8, P. Bjerkeli5, E. De Beck, T. Cavalié9, 10, 11, 12, N. R. Crockett, P. Hily-Blant26, M. Kama8, T. Kaminski, B. Leflóch8, R. Lombaert, M. De Luca27, Z. Makai, M. Marseille18, Z. Nagy28, S. Pacheco8, M. H. D. van der Wiel, S. Wang29, U. Yıldız

Aims: In this paper the calibration and in-orbit performance of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) is described. Methods: The calibration of HIFI is based on a combination of ground and in-flight tests. Dedicated ground tests to determine those instrument parameters that can only be measured accurately using controlled laboratory stimuli were carried out in the instrument level test (ILT) campaign. Special in-flight tests during the commissioning phase (CoP) and performance verification (PV) allowed the determination of the remaining instrument parameters. The various instrument observing modes, as specified in astronomical observation templates (AOTs), were validated in parallel during PV by observing selected celestial sources. Results: The initial calibration and in-orbit performance of HIFI has been established. A first estimate of the calibration budget is given. The overall in-flight instrument performance agrees with the original specification. Issues remain at only a few frequencies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
1:  LUTH - Laboratoire Univers et Théories
2:  Univ Groningen, SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands
3:  CALTECH, Ctr Infrared Proc & Anal, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
4:  Onsala Space Observatory
5:  FL - foreign laboratories
6:  ESO
7:  LESIA - Laboratoire d'études spatiales et d'instrumentation en astrophysique
8:  LAOG - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble
9:  OASU - Observatoire aquitain des sciences de l'univers
10:  Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1
11:  LAB - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux
12:  L3AB - Laboratoire d'astrodynamique, d'astrophysique et d'aéronomie de bordeaux
13:  Univ Toulouse UPS, Ctr Etud Spatiale Rayonnements, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France
14:  CNRS INSU, UMR 5187, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France
15:  Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Lab Astrofis Mol, Madrid 28850, Spain
16:  CESR - Centre d'étude spatiale des rayonnements
17:  Max Planck Inst Radioastron, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
18:  SRON - Institute for Space Research Netherlands
19:  MpIfR - MPI f"ur Radioastronomie
20:  IRAM - Instituto de RadioAstronomía Milimétrica
21:  Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri
22:  California Institute of Technology
23:  Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung
24:  Univ Cologne, Inst Phys 1, D-50937 Cologne, Germany
25:  CENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan
26:  IPAG - Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble
27:  LERMA - Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique
28:  IGBMC - Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
29:  Univ Michigan, Dept Astron, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
SSE 2012
Sciences of the Universe/Astrophysics/Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

Physics/Astrophysics/Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
methods: observational – space vehicles: instruments – instrumentation: spectrographs