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Science of The Total Environment 373 (2007) 49-56
Spatial heterogeneity of personal exposure to airborne metals in French urban areas
E. Nerriere1, H. Guegan2, B. Bordigoni1, A. Hautemaniere3, I. Momas4, J. Ladner5, A. Target6, P. Lameloise7, V. Delmas8, M.-B. Personnaz9, P. Koutrakis, D. Zmirou-Navier1

The spatial distribution of urban population exposures to ambient air particles was investigated as part of the Genotox'ER study conducted in four metropolitan areas (Grenoble, Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg) in France. In each city, 60 to 90 non-smoking adult and children volunteers were selected. Subjects lived in three different urban sectors: one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment. The Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant personal sampler was used to sample PM10 and PM2.5 particles during 48 h during two different seasons (‘hot' and ‘cold'). The elemental composition of the filters was analysed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Sixteen elements were found to be over the method detection limits: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The relative concentrations of elements of crustal origin (Si, Al, Ca) were higher in the coarse fraction of PM10 filters, while elements associated with combustion processes (traffic emissions or industrial combustion) presented higher relative concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction (S, Ni, V, Pb). Spatial heterogeneity of elemental exposures by urban sector is substantial for some metals of health concern, with 20% to 90% greater exposure values, on average, in the traffic proximity or industrial sectors, compared to the background sector, for Fe, Zn, Cu, V and Cr. This spatial heterogeneity should not be overlooked in epidemiological or risk assessment studies.
1 :  Evaluations et prévention des risques professionnels et environnementaux
2 :  CENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan
3 :  Dieppe Hospital Medical Statistics Department
4 :  Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology
5 :  Département d'Epidémiologie et Santé Publique
6 :  ASPA - ASPA France
7 :  AIRPARIF - Association AIRPARIF
8 :  Air Normand
9 :  ASCOPARG - Association pour la Contrôle et la Prévention de l'Air dans la Région Grenobloise
Sciences du Vivant/Ecologie, Environnement/Santé
PM2.5 – PM10 – Minerals – Metals – Personal exposure