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Stable quarks of the 4th family?
Belotsky K., Khlopov M.Y., Shibaev K.
Dans The Physics of Quarks: New Research, Nicolas L. Watson and Theo M. Grant (Ed.) (2008) 19-47 - http://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-00294295
Physique/Astrophysique/Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique
Planète et Univers/Astrophysique/Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique
Planète et Univers/Astrophysique
Stable quarks of the 4th family?
K. Belotsky1, M.Y. Khlopov1, 2, K. Shibaev1
1 :  Center for cosmoparticle physics "Cosmion" - Center for cosmoparticle physics "Cosmion"
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences
Miusskaya Pl. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia
Russie, Fédération De
2 :  APC - UMR 7164 - AstroParticule et Cosmologie
CNRS : UMR7164 – IN2P3 – Observatoire de Paris – Université Paris VII - Paris Diderot – CEA : DSM/IRFU
APC - UMR 7164, Université Paris Diderot, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, case postale 7020, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13
Existence of metastable quarks of new generation can be embedded into phenomenology of heterotic string together with new long range interaction, which only this new generation possesses. We discuss primordial quark production in the early Universe, their successive cosmological evolution and astrophysical effects, as well as possible production in present or future accelerators. In case of a charge symmetry of 4th generation quarks in Universe, they can be stored in neutral mesons, doubly positively charged baryons, while all the doubly negatively charged "baryons" are combined with He-4 into neutral nucleus-size atom-like states. The existence of all these anomalous stable particles may escape present experimental limits, being close to present and future experimental test. Due to the nuclear binding with He-4 primordial lightest baryons of the 4th generation with charge +1 can also escape the experimental upper limits on anomalous isotopes of hydrogen, being compatible with upper limits on anomalous lithium. While 4th quark hadrons are rare, their presence may be nearly detectable in cosmic rays, muon and neutrino fluxes and cosmic electromagnetic spectra. In case of charge asymmetry, a nontrivial solution for the problem of dark matter (DM) can be provided by excessive (meta)stable anti-up quarks of 4th generation, bound with He-4 in specific nuclear-interacting form of dark matter. Such candidate to DM is surprisingly close to Warm Dark Matter by its role in large scale structure formation. It catalyzes primordial heavy element production in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and new types of nuclear transformations around us.

Chapitres d'ouvrages scientifiques
The Physics of Quarks: New Research
Nicolas L. Watson and Theo M. Grant
Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Horizons in world physics

28 pages, 3 figures; Invited contribution to the book "The Physics of Quarks: New Research", Nova Science Publishers, 2008
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