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Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Research: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 639 (2010) 207-210
Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics
G. Hallewell1

The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixtures - developed for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.
1 :  CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille
Physique/Physique des Hautes Energies - Expérience

Sciences de l'ingénieur/Electronique
Saturated fluorocarbon – Cherenkov radiator media – Detector cooling – Radiation resistant cooling fluids – Evaporative cooling – Monophase cooling – Dielectric cooling fluids – Thermosyphon operation