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The first Fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar
A. Abdo A., Ackermann M., Ajello M., Antolini E., Baldini L. et al
Astrophysical Journal 730 (2011) 101 - http://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-00587827
Physics/Astrophysics/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Sciences of the Universe/Astrophysics/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Physics/Astrophysics/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics
Sciences of the Universe/Astrophysics/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics
The first Fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar
A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet1, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel2, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian1, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi3, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, F. De Palma, D. Donato, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, L. Escande4, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan2, J. Finke, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin2, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier1, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder5, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott4, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. Mcenery, J. Mehault3, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo1, S. Nishino, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss3, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent4, V. Pelassa3, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron3, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H. F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez2, A. Sander, F. K. Schinzel, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, K. V. Sokolovsky, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo1, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T. Uehara, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez5, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, A. Berdyugin, M. Boettcher, A. Carramiñana, L. Carrasco, E. De La Fuente, C. Diltz, T. Hovatta, V. Kadenius, Y. Y. Kovalev, A. Lähteenmäki, E. Lindfors, A. P. Marscher, K. Nilsson, D. Pereira, R. Reinthal, P. Roustazadeh, T. Savolainen, A. Sillanpää, L. O. Takalo, M. Tornikoski
1:  AIM - UMR 7158 - Astrophysique Interactions Multi-échelles
CNRS : UMR7158 – INSU – Université Paris VII - Paris Diderot – CEA : DSM/IRFU
AIM - UMR 7158, Service d'astrophysique, CEA/Saclay, Orme des Merisiers F-91191 GIF SUR YVETTE CEDEX
2:  LLR - Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet
CNRS : UMR7638 – IN2P3 – Polytechnique - X
Route de Saclay - 91128 Palaiseau Cedex
3:  LPTA - Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Astroparticules
CNRS : UMR5207 – IN2P3 – Université Montpellier II - Sciences et techniques
Bât 13- 1er Et. - CC 070 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5
4:  CENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan
CNRS : UMR5797 – IN2P3 – Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I
Chemin du Solarium - BP 120 - 33175 Gradignan Cedex
5:  CESR - Centre d'étude spatiale des rayonnements
CNRS : UMR5187 – Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées – INSU – Université Paul Sabatier (UPS) - Toulouse III
9 Av du colonel Roche - BP 4346 31028 TOULOUSE CEDEX 4
We report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi-LAT science operations and present results from a 48-day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsahovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH and MDM) and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma-rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave indicating the transition region between the low and high energy component of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months BL Lac appeared variable in gamma-rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for correlation of the gamma-rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single zone or two zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton (ERC) model seems preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.

Article in peer-reviewed journal
Astrophysical Journal (Astrophys. J.)
Publisher American Astronomical Society
ISSN 0004-637X 

98.54.Cm Active and peculiar galaxies and related systems (including BL Lacertae objects, blazars, Seyfert galaxies, Markarian galaxies, and active galactic nuclei) 95.85.Pw &ggr;-ray 95.30.Gv Radiation mechanisms; polarization 98.62.En
14 pages, apj-style emulated, 10 figures. In press by The Astrophysical Journal
BL Lacertae objects: general – BL Lacertae objects: individual (BL Lacertae) – galaxies: jets – gamma rays: galaxies – radiation mechanisms: non-thermal – X-rays: galaxies
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