https://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-01241907Schmidt, Karl-HeinzKarl-HeinzSchmidtCENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - UB - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - IN2P3 - Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueJurado, BeatrizBeatrizJuradoCENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - UB - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - IN2P3 - Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueAmouroux, CharlotteCharlotteAmourouxCEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternativesSchmitt, C.C.SchmittGANIL - Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - IN2P3 - Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueGeneral Description of Fission Observables: GEF Model CodeHAL CCSD2016[PHYS.NUCL] Physics [physics]/Nuclear Theory [nucl-th][PHYS.NEXP] Physics [physics]/Nuclear Experiment [nucl-ex]CADOU, FANNY2015-12-11 14:48:042023-03-24 14:53:012015-12-11 15:21:52enJournal articleshttps://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-01241907/document10.1016/j.nds.2015.12.009application/pdf1The GEF (" GEneral description of Fission observables ") model code is documented. It describes the observables for spontaneous fission, neutron-induced fission and, more generally, for fission of a compound nucleus from any other entrance channel, with given excitation energy and angular momentum. The GEF model is applicable for a wide range of isotopes from Z = 80 to Z = 112 and beyond, up to excitation energies of about 100 MeV. The results of the GEF model are compared with fission barriers, fission probabilities, fission-fragment mass-and nuclide distributions, isomeric ratios, total kinetic energies, and prompt-neutron and prompt-gamma yields and energy spectra from neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. Derived properties of delayed neutrons and decay heat are also considered. The GEF model is based on a general approach to nuclear fission that explains a great part of the complex appearance of fission observables on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and general properties of microscopic systems and mathematical objects. The topographic theorem is used to estimate the fission-barrier heights from theoretical macroscopic saddle-point and ground-state masses and experimental ground-state masses. Motivated by the theoretically predicted early lo-calisation of nucleonic wave functions in a necked-in shape, the properties of the relevant fragment shells are extracted. These are used to determine the depths and the widths of the fission valleys corresponding to the different fission channels and to describe the fission-fragment distributions and deformations at scission by a statistical approach. A modified composite nuclear-level-density formula is proposed. It respects some features in the superfluid regime that are in accordance with new experimental findings and with theoretical expectations. These are a constant-temperature behaviour that is consistent with a considerably increased heat capacity and an increased pairing condensation energy that is consistent with the collective enhancement of the level density. The exchange of excitation energy and nucleons between the nascent fragments on the way from saddle to scission is estimated according to statistical mechanics. As a result, excitation energy and un-paired nucleons are predominantly transferred to the heavy fragment in the superfluid regime. This description reproduces some rather peculiar observed features of the prompt-neutron multiplicities and of the even-odd effect in fission-fragment Z distributions. For completeness, some conventional descriptions are used for calculating pre-equilibrium emission, fission probabilities and statistical emission of neutrons and gamma radiation from the excited fragments. Preference is given to simple models that can also be applied to exotic nuclei compared to more sophisticated models that need precise empirical input of nuclear properties, e.g. spectroscopic information. The approach reveals a high degree of regularity and provides a considerable insight into the physics of the fission process. Fission observables can be calculated with a precision that complies with the needs for applications in nuclear technology without specific adjustments to measured data of individual systems. The GEF executable runs out of the box with no need for entering any empirical data. This unique feature is of valuable importance, because the number of systems and energies of potential significance for fundamental and applied science will never be possible to be measured. The relevance of the approach for examining the consistency of experimental results and for evaluating nuclear data is demonstrated.